The history of the Church dates back to the mid-nineteenth century; missionaries were provided by the American Church, the Church of England, the Church of England in Canada, the Church of Ireland, the Churches of Australia and New Zealand. Western missionaries withdrew in 1950. All Churches were closed in 1966 and did not begin to reopen until 1979. Most denominations then joined the China Christian Council. The suppression of the prodemocracy movement in 1989 resulted in stricter regulations for religious groups. Today members of the Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui (the Holy Catholic Church in China) are found in the postdenominational Church, the Three-Self Movement, except for in Hong Kong, which returned to Chinese sovereignty in 1997, and in Macao, which will be returned to China by Portugal in 1999.