A solemn renunciation of any belief, thing, or person to which one was previously loyal. This formal retraction of errors, made before witnesses, often concerned matters of apostasy, heresy, or schism. Prior to 1972, this solemn disavowal was required of baptized Christians being received into the Roman Catholic Church. The Greek Church has required particular forms of abjuration by which former members of other churches must specifically disavow certain beliefs of their previous faith community. The Episcopal Church has no such requirements for persons being received from other denominations. See Anathema; see Apostasy; see Reception (Christian Commitment).