An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church

Glossary of Terms

Coverdale’s Bible

The first completed Bible printed in English, translated by Miles Coverdale. It was produced on the Continent and issued in 1535. This translation was based on the Vulgate, Luther's German translation of the Bible, and William Tyndale's translations of the Pentateuch, Jonah, and the NT. This Bible provided a basis for the Great Bible (1539), […]

Cowley Fathers

” See Society of St. John the Evangelist, The (SSJE) (Cowley Fathers).

Cowley Publications

The publishing ministry of the Society of St. John the Evangelist (SSJE), an Anglican religious order for men. Cowley Publications was founded in 1979 by M. Thomas Shaw, SSJE, and James Madden, SSJE, to revive the educational work of their order, which was then widely known as the Cowley Fathers. Cynthia Shattuck, a seminary-educated lay […]

Cowper, William

(Nov. 15, 1731-Apr. 25, 1800). British poet and hymn-writer. His life was marred by deep melancholy which began in his school days at Westminster School and oppressed him until his death. During Cowper's residency at Olney he established a creative, strong friendship with the Rev. John Newton who encouraged his hymn writing. Sixty-eight of his […]

Coxe, Arthur Cleveland

(May 10, 1818-July 20, 1896). Leading figure of the high church party. He was born in Mendham, New Jersey. He graduated from the University of New York in 1838 and then from General Theological Seminary in 1841. He was ordained deacon on June 27, 1841, and priest on Sept. 25, 1842. He was rector of […]

Cram, Ralph Adams

(Dec. 16, 1863-Sept. 22, 1942). Church architect. He was born in Hampton Falls, New Hampshire. After completing high school in 1880, he studied for five years in an architectural firm in Boston. Although he abandoned architecture for a time, he returned to that profession in 1890 and formed a partnership with Charles Francis Wentworth. Cram's […]

Cranmer, Thomas

(July 2, 1489-Mar. 21, 1556). First Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury and leader of the Anglican Reformation. He was born in Aslockton, Nottinghamshire, England. Cranmer received his B.A. from Jesus College, Cambridge University, in 1511. In 1520 he was ordained priest and selected as one of the university preachers. Around 1521 he began to be influenced […]

Crapsey, Algernon Sidney

(June 28, 1847-Dec. 31, 1927). Priest deposed for heresy. He was born in Fairmount, Ohio. He studied at St. Stephen's College (now Bard College) from 1867 to 1869 and received a B.D. from the General Theological Seminary in 1872. He was ordained deacon on June 30, 1872 and priest on Oct. 5, 1873. Crapsey served […]


1) Understanding that God creates and directly infuses a new soul in every person at conception. The soul is understood to be created by God out of nothing. Creationism denies the pre-existence of the soul (Pre-existentialism), and it denies that the soul is transmitted by the parents or generated with the body (Traducianism). 2) Understanding […]


The reducing by fire of a dead body to ashes. The ashes may be placed in an urn or other container and interred in a niche of a columbarium. The ashes may also be buried or scattered in a memorial garden on church grounds or in a cemetery. The ashes may be referred to as […]

Croes, John

(June 1, 1762-July 26, 1832). First Bishop of the Diocese of New Jersey. He was born in Elizabethtown, New Jersey. He pursued a brief career as a teacher and served in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. After the war, he received theological instruction from Bishop William White of Philadelphia, who ordained him deacon […]


The instrument of Jesus' death and the central symbol of the Christian faith. It represents Jesus' offering and sacrifice of his life in love for us and our salvation. The cross thus symbolizes the Christian life, especially in terms of love, generosity, and sacrifice. The cross itself was a vertical stake in the ground which […]

Cross, Wilford Oakland

(July 26, 1903-Sept. 12, 1978). Priest and theologian. He was born in Nottinghamshire, England. His family moved to the United States when he was nine years old. Cross received his B.A. from the University of Illinois in 1926, a Certificate in Theology from the Berkeley Divinity School in 1929, and his M.A. from Columbia University […]

Croswell, William

(Nov. 7, 1804-Nov. 9, 1851). Leading Anglo-catholic. He was born in Hudson, New York. Croswell graduated from Yale College in 1822, and for the next two years was an assistant teacher in a private school in New Haven. He then studied at the General Theological Seminary and graduated in 1826. Croswell also studied with Bishop […]

Crozier, or Crosier

The pastorial staff of a Bishop. It was originally a walking stick and later acquired the symbolism of a shepherd’s crook. It is a sign of pastoral authority. It may also be carried by abbots and abbeses. In liturgy the diocesan bishop carries the crozier in the left hand, woth the crook facing outward. Although […]


Death by nailing or binding to a wooden cross. The practice began in the ancient east and was common among the Romans as punishment inflicted on slaves and certain non-Romans. It was abolished by Constantine. The crucifixion of Christ is recorded by all four evangelists. Crosses used for execution are either crux commissa (in the […]

Crummell, Alexander

(1819-Sept. 12, 1898). African American priest, missionary, and educator. He was born in New York City. Crummell completed a course of study at the Oneida Institute, Whitesboro, New York, in 1839. However, he was denied entrance to the General Theological Seminary because of his color. He then studied for the ordained ministry on his own […]

Cry Hosanna

This volume of 142 songs and hymns with music was edited by Betty Pulkingham and Mimi Farra and published by Hope Publishing in 1980. Its predecessors were Sound of Living Waters and Fresh Sounds. It contains hymns from various traditions and countries. It is a collection of traditional hymns and celebrative songs.

Cuba, Missionary District of

On Oct. 17, 1901, the House of Bishops established the Missionary District of Cuba. At first it was placed under the jurisdiction of the Presiding Bishop. In 1904 the first Missionary Bishop was consecrated. On Oct. 27, 1966, the House of Bishops made the Missionary District of Cuba the autonomous Diocese of Cuba within the […]

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Glossary definitions provided courtesy of Church Publishing Incorporated, New York, NY,(All Rights reserved) from “An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church, A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians,” Don S. Armentrout and Robert Boak Slocum, editors.