An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church

Glossary of Terms


A textual insertion into the authorized liturgical texts. Tropes varied from a few words to lengthy sentences. Used with traditional plainchant, the extra words were matched to the notes of a long melisma (a series of notes assigned to one syllable of the text). For example, the setting for the Kyrie eleison at S 356 […]

True Catholic, The

This journal's full title was The True Catholic: Reformed, Protestant and Free. Edited by Members of the Protestant Episcopal Church, with the Approbation of the Bishop of Maryland. It was published from May 1843 until Dec. 1856 and edited by the layman and lawyer Hugh Davey Evans. It published news about the church in England […]

Truth, Sojourner

(c. 1797/98-Nov. 26, 1883). Antislavery reformer. She was born a slave in Ulster County, New York, and named Isabella Baumfree. She purchased her freedom when she was twenty-eight. After one of her many religious visions, on June 1, 1843, she took the name Sojourner Truth. She moved to New York City and became a member […]

Tubman, Harriet Ross

(c. 1821-Mar. 10, 1913). Abolitionist. She was born a slave in Dorcester County, Maryland. She was first named Araminta, but later changed her name to Harriet. Tubman was a member of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church. In 1849 she escaped from slavery and was a fugitive slave. Tubman became one of the leaders in […]

Tucker, Francis Bland

(Jan. 6, 1895-Jan. 1, 1984). Priest and hymn composer. He was born in Norfolk, Virginia, the son of Beverley Dandridge Tucker, later Bishop of Southern Virginia, and Anna Maria (Washington) Tucker, who had been born in Mount Vernon. He was educated at the University of Virginia and Virginia Theological Seminary. Tucker was ordained deacon on […]

Tucker, Henry St. George

(July 16, 1874-Aug. 8, 1959). Nineteenth Presiding Bishop. He was born in Warsaw, Virginia. Tucker received his M.A. from the University of Virginia in 1895 and his B.D. from the Virginia Theological Seminary in 1899. He was ordained deacon on June 23, 1899, and priest on July 30, 1900. Tucker began his ordained ministry as […]

Tucker, Irwin St. John

(Jan. 10, 1886-Jan. 8, 1982). Priest and social activist. He was born in Mobile, Alabama. Tucker received his B.D. from the General Theological Seminary in 1913. He was ordained deacon on June 2, 1912, and priest on May 18, 1913. In 1914 Tucker left New York for Chicago where he became managing editor of the […]

Tune-Book, The

A collection of tunes for use in the Episcopal Church. The 1856 General Convention resolved to appoint a committee to prepare a book of psalm and hymn tunes, chants, and anthems. The committee included William Augustus Muhlenberg, Gregory Thurston Bedell, George J. Geer, and James A. Johnson. The committee presented their book of tunes to […]


Once the distinctive vestment of subdeacons in the western church, the tunicle is now obsolete. The term is from the Latin tunicula, which is the diminutive of tunica, “tunic.” The tunic was a long, loose-fitting garment that was worn by men and women in ancient Greece and Rome. The tunicle was originally a white tunic […]

Tunnell, William Victor

(d. Dec. 23, 1943). African American theological educator. He received his B.A. from Howard University. Tunnell was the second African American student to be admitted to the General Theological Seminary and received his B.D. in 1887. He was ordained deacon on June 5, 1887, and priest on Dec. 18, 1887. From 1888 until 1890 he […]

Turner, Samuel Hulbeart

(Jan. 23, 1790-Dec. 21, 1861). Priest and biblical scholar. He was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1807 and then studied for the ministry under Bishop William White. Turner was ordained deacon on Jan. 27, 1811, and priest on Jan. 23, 1814. From 1814 to 1817 he was rector […]


A person who gives private instruction or additional and remedial instruction. In some universities and colleges, a tutor is a teacher or teaching assistant with a rank below that of an instructor. The General Theological Seminary has used graduate students as tutors for students in the Master of Divinity program.

Tuttle, Daniel Sylvester

(Jan. 26, 1837-Apr. 17, 1923). Thirteenth Presiding Bishop. He was born in Windham, New York. He graduated from Columbia in 1857 and from the General Theological Seminary in 1862. Tuttle was ordained deacon on June 29, 1862, and priest on July 19, 1863. He began his ordained ministry as curate at Zion Church, Morris, New […]

Two-penny Act

Two acts passed by the Virginia Assembly concerning the payment of public officials, including clergy. In the Virginia colony the primary means of payment was in tobacco. In 1758 there was a “prodigious diminution” of this staple crop because of the “unseasonableness” of the weather. The legislature voted to pay public officials, including clergy, with […]

Tyndale, or Tindal, William

(c. 1495-Oct. 6, 1536). Translator of the scriptures. He was born in Slymbridge, “about the borders of Wales.” Tyndale received his B.A. and M.A. from Magdalen College, Oxford, and then studied at Cambridge. He was ordained priest around 1521 and soon determined to translate the scriptures into English. He was not free to do his […]

Tyng, Stephen Higginson

(Mar. 1, 1800-Sept. 3, 1885). Leading evangelical. He was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Tyng graduated from Harvard College in 1817. He then studied for the ordained ministry under Bishop Alexander V. Griswold. He was ordained deacon on Mar. 4, 1821, and priest on Jan. 28, 1824. Tyng began his ministry as rector of St. John's […]

Tyng, Stephen Higginson, Jr.

(June 28, 1839-Nov. 17, 1898). Leading evangelical. He was born in Philadelphia. Tyng graduated from Williams College in 1858. He studied for the ordained ministry at the Virginia Theological Seminary. He was ordained deacon on May 8, 1861, and served for two years as his father's assistant at St. George's Church, New York City. Tyng […]

Vail, Thomas Hubbard

(Oct. 21, 1812-Oct. 6, 1889). Bishop and ecumenist. He was born in Richmond, Virginia. Vail graduated from Washington (now Trinity) College in 1831 and from the General Theological Seminary in 1835. He was ordained deacon on June 29, 1835, and priest on Jan. 6, 1837. While a deacon he officiated at St. James' Church, Philadelphia, […]

Validity (Sacramental)

A sacrament is recognized by the church to be genuine and true when certain minimum requirements are met. These requirements concern proper form, matter, minister, and intent. The form means the words of prayer that are used in the sacramental rite, and the matter concerns the material or gesture constituting the outward and visible sign […]

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Glossary definitions provided courtesy of Church Publishing Incorporated, New York, NY,(All Rights reserved) from “An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church, A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians,” Don S. Armentrout and Robert Boak Slocum, editors.